In terms of engineering, we explained the applications, properties and types of ceramic materials. But there are strict chemical and atomic reasons of properties of ceramic materials. In this article, we will explain these chemical and atomic reasons of these properties of ceramic materials.
If we take a look at the atomic arragements of ceramic materials, the prevailing atomic bond in ceramics are ionic and covalent. These atomic bonds are much more stronger compared with metallic bonds. This is the main reason of why ceramic materials’ hardness values are superior over metals. And brittle nature of ceramics can be explained with this. The strong bond between ceramic atoms provides high melting temperature.
As you know that, metals conduct electricity with their ‘electron sea’ which means the free electrons of metals. There is no such a kind of phenomenon like this in ceramics. All the electrons in ceramics’ atomic structure are held strictly. Because of that, ceramics are electrically insulative materials.
Generally, ceramic materials have crystalline structure like most metals. But, because of some reaons, that crystalline structure of ceramic materials much more complex from metals. Main reason for it is, atom sizes in ceramics changes drastically and ion charges also can be different. These factors leads to very complex crystalline arragement in ceramic materials.
Also some of ceramics can have amorphous atomic structure. This structure of ceramics is also called as ‘glassy’ ceramics. The most known example for amorphous ceramics is glass. With the addition of other elements, colors of glass can be changed.
Ceramics can have single-crystalline and poly-crystalline structures. And like in metals, physical and mechanical properties can be affected from grain size. Higher strength and toughness can be achieved with finer grains, for ceramics.
The general chemical and atomic structures of ceramics can be explained like above. Do not forget to leave your comments and questions about ‘chemical and atomic structures of ceramics’ below!