# Closed-Die Forging Operations; Explanation, Features…

Closed-die forging operations which are also called impression-die forging processes are applied to shape the metal workpieces into desired shapes. There are various kinds of applications of the closed-die forging processes in the metal industry. Here you can find useful information about the close-die forging processes.

## Closed-Die Forging Processes

In the closed-die forging process, two opposite dies constitute the negative shape of the exact desired final shape. When the die is pushed to the metal piece, the metal piece takes the shape of the entire closed-die, like open-die forging processes.

Between the two opposing dies, there is a small gap. Metal squeezes through this small gap and fills that gap. When the metal gets cold, these metal flashes are trimmed. The purpose of these metal flashes; when the metal flashes are solidified inside the small gaps, it produces extra pressure on the metal inside the die. This back pressure leads to metal take the exact shape of the complex sides of the die.

Like in the open-die forging processes, several consecutive shaping processes must be applied to obtain the exact shape. There can be different dies that shape the metal part for another shaping die. With this gradual shaping, more intricate and higher quality parts can be produced.

## Force Calculations For Closed-Die Forging

Calculation of the required forces for the closed-die forging processes is not simple like in the open-die forging processes. Geometrical complexities and flash formation are the reasons for this calculation difficulty.

First of all, you need to define a forging shape factor ‘Kf’ from the table. You can use other tables provided by other authorities. Flashless forging is another alternative.

Once you define the required Kf, you can use the calculator below to calculate the required force that must be applied to the metal workpiece.

### Required Force Calculation For Closed-Die Forging

The use of the calculator above is very simple. You just need to enter the required value inside the brackets. Then click on the ‘Calculate’ button to calculate the result. If you want to make another calculation click on the ‘Reset’ button and re-enter the values.

You can use the recommended units inside the parentheses. Also, you can use the MB-Unit Converter tool to convert your units into consistent sets of units.

In this calculator, the first value is the forging shape factor. The second value is the required stress value for the flowing of the metal. The last value is the projected area of the metal part with the flash.

## Advantages And Other Features Of The Closed-Die Forging

The most important advantage of closed-die forging operations is the capability of production in very high amounts. Close tolerances can be also obtained. The strength of the produced parts is superior and material savings are very good compared with alternative methods.

But additional processes must be applied after the closed-die forging processes. With these additional processes such as machining, the exact geometry is obtained. In general, the near-net shape of the product is obtained with the closed-die forging operations.

## Conclusion

This is the general information about the closed-die forging operations.

Mechanical Base does not accept any responsibility for calculations made by users in calculators. A good engineer must check calculations again and again.

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