Like in other materials, bunch of different additive materials are used to improve or add properties to produced polymer materials. Some of additives add extra property to polymer materials, some of additives also used for improve the properties of polymer materials. In here, we explain the general additive materials that are used to improve or add properties to polymer materials.
What Are The Additives That Used In Polymers?
Additive materials can be count by their functions; colorants, fillers, flame retardants, plasticizers, cross-linking agents, antioxidants, ultraviolet light absorbers and lubricants. These are very imporant additive agents and materials in polymer industry.
- Colorants: As you understand from its name, colorants are used to give colors to polymer materials. Colorant materials can be classified into 2 groups; dies and pigments. Pigments are added to polymer materials’ in liquid state, and they are insoluble. So pigments must be mixed with liquid polymers homogeneously. Dies are liquid and they can react with polymers.
- Fillers: Filler additives are added to composition of polymers to obtain more fibrious and reduce the cost of material. Mechanical properties of polymers are also enhanced with fillers. Polymers that mechanical properties are enhanced with fillers, called as ‘reinforced platics’. These additives also called as ‘reinforcing agents’. Examples of filler materials that are used in polymer technology, cellulosic fibers and powder, powders of silica (SiO2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and clay and fibers of glass, metal, carbon, or other polymers.
- Flame Retardants: These are the additives that are added into polymers to obtain imflammable polymer materials.
- Plasticizers: Plasticizers are added to polymers to obtain soft and flexible characteristics. Plasticizers also gives very good flowablity in forming operations. The working principle of plasticizers to obtian these result is the lowering glass transition temperature(Tg) of polymer around room temperature.
- Cross-linking Agents: Cross-linked structures are very important for thermoset polymers to obtain high strenth materials. So some of additives are added to obtain much more cross-linked structure in thermosets.
- Antioxidants: When polymers are burned, lots of noxious gases are produced. Also in processing operations of polymers, these noxious gases are produced. To prevent these gas formations, some antioxidants are added in polymers.
- Ultraviolet Light Absorbers: Ultraviolet light that is generally comes from The Sun, is very harmful for polymers. Degradation of polymers are generally occurs because of ultraviolet lights. So ultraviolet light absorber additives are added into polymer materials, especially thermosettings. Becuase, ultraviolet light is very harmful for cross-linkings which give the main mechanical strength to thermosetting polymers.
- Lubricants: In some applicationis lubricative properties are expected from polymers. So these lubricative agents are added in this purpose. Also for easy release of polymer part from injection molding, mold cavities are coated with lubricants.
These are the general additives that are used in polymers for specific purposes. Do not forget to leave your comments and questions about additives that are used in polymer industry and chemistry below. Your precious feedbacks is very important for us.