Polymer filaments and fibers are very important part of the textile industry. Polymer wools are produced by using these spinning methods that will be described here. Also, fiber-reinforced composites is an another industry that polymer filaments are used. First of all, we need to know what is filament and what is fiber.
In polymer industry, polymer filaments are defined as; if the length of produced polymer product is above 100 times of the thickness of cross section, these products can be called as polymer filaments. Polymer fibers are the continous type of filaments.
In general, there are three types of spinning processes are used to produce polymer fibers and filaments. But in general, ‘spinneret’ which is a special die to produce filaments is fed by molten polymer or other forms of polymers. There are very small holes on spinneret die, and the polymer melt drawn from these holes to obtain filament and fiber geometries. And these filaments and fibers are wound on bobbins.
These three types of spinning operations are; Dry spinning, wet spinning and melt spinning.
Wet spinning operation is used for spinning of rayons. In this type of spinning operation, polymer to be spinned is solution inside a non-volatile solvent. To separate the polymer and give the form, special liquid chemicals are used to coagulate the polymer inside the solvent. And the collected strands are wound on bobbins.
Fibers from acrylic and cellulose acetate are produced with dry spinning operations. In this process, polymers are solved inside volatile solvents in which the polymer solution is passed inside a heated chamber before the drawing from spinneret.
Polyester filaments and nylon filaments are produced with melt spinning operations. Melt spinning operations are one of the most important operations in spinning industry. In melt spinning, polymer melt pumped onto a specific geometry of spinneret. And the pumped and non-cooled filaments that are emanating from spinneret, wound on bobbins. This wound operation is also reduce the diameters of pumped filaments up to solidification. Solidification takes place between the outside of spinneret and bobbin.
For build up a spinning workshop, you need to define what kinds of products that you will produce. Because, the selection of the proper process and proper machine is very important thing.
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